Everyone knows that there are two types of diabetes mellitus, but unfortunately, most people don’t know their difference. In both types of cases of diabetes, the sugar level in the blood gets too high. The body doesn’t produce insulin (a hormone regulating blood sugar). On the other hand, it doesn’t properly utilize insulin. The problem is mainly the same in both cases, but the causes and treatments are different.
Around 30.3 million individuals have diabetes mellitus, about 9.4% of the U.S. population. 84.1 million Adults aged 18 years or older have prediabetes Mellitus, which is about 33.9% of the adult U.S. population. But what exactly the difference between them is? There is a lot of misunderstanding which surrounds this disease, especially when it comes to type-1 versus type2. So, let’s start with type-1 to differentiate it.
Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus
The main difference between these two types is that type-1 is a genetic disorder that shows up in the early stages of life. In contrast, type-2 is diet-related. It develops over time when the patient has Diabetes type-1. Hence, the immune system destroys and attacks the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas (the flat organ).
The best news is that today’s treatment allows individuals who are dealing with type-1 diabetes mellitus to know how to manage the effects of the disorder and live a normal life.
Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus treatment ways
An individual should monitor blood sugar. If the patient has diabetes mellitus, he should be familiar with normal blood sugar levels and regularly check them. Depending on the health care you have chosen, you might check it four times in a single day. You need to use a small blood sugar meter which is called a glucometer. It means glucose levels in a kind of pinprick of blood which is done on a disposable test strip. On the other hand, there is the option of a continuous glucose monitor that automatically calculates and measures the blood sugar every few minutes, which is used by a sensor that is inserted underneath the skin.
Insulin should be taken because the body is unable to make it on its own, so getting it in any other way is the right thing. Few methods are there to take insulin, including regular injections, an insulin pump that is wearable that delivers small and steady doses of insulin that is fast-acting and is regulated throughout the day by a thin tube. But it is not a convenient lifestyle.
You should maintain your diet appropriately. There is no need to be highly restrictive; you need to take care of yourself by taking balanced carbohydrates. You can eat them continuously but not go overboard if the patient is taking a fixed amount of insulin daily, so carbohydrate intake should be consistent to match its importance.
To make health good exercise is a must, it helps you remain active. For people with type-1 diabetes, it helps to keep sugar levels in blood check, and it causes the body to use insulin in a better way.
Signs Of Type-1 Diabetes
If you or the one in your loved ones have any of these symptoms, kindly give him a check.
- Thirst is increased.
- The urination is frequent.
- Weight loss happens without any reason.
- There is weakness and fatigue.
- The patient will have blurred vision.
Diagnosis of Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus
In order to diagnose type-1 diabetes mellitus, the patient should get his blood test done, which is called an A1C screening. It measures the sugar level in the blood from the past 2 or 3 months. It can be worked or used to diagnose type-1 diabetes, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and prediabetes.
When is the emergency alarm?
A complication of type-1 diabetes mellitus is called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which results from high blood sugar and is life-threatening. When DKA happens, the cells in the body are starved for energy and break down fat, which produces toxic acids called ketones. So, if someone shows the below symptoms, kindly give it a check
- Pain in the chest.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Abdominal pain.
When DKA is diagnosed, which is often the result of type-1 diabetes, another complication called hypoglycemia or low blood sugar results from taking too much insulin. Treatments are needed to get blood sugar back to normal by taking high sugar foods, drinking juice, and soft drinks regularly, taking and eating candy, and glucose tablets also increase sugar levels. If the sugar in the blood is low so below are symptoms
- Fatigue will be there.
- Skin will be pale.
- Fast or irregular heartbeat.
- Numbness of lips, cheek, or tongue.
Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
In the U.S, type-2 diabetes Mellitus is more common than type-1, and the reason behind its occurrence is a lifestyle. In type-2 diabetes, the body produces less insulin, but that isn’t effective. Due to poor diet and lack of exercise, the pancreas doesn’t work well with high blood sugar levels. Some individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus are actually “insulin resistance,” which means the pancreas is producing inulin, but the body is not recognizing it.
Risk factors associated with Type-2 diabetes mellitus
suppose the diet of individuals has high carbs and fat and has low fiber. In that case, the person is not physically active or has high blood pressure, so there is the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus. Also, there is high alcohol consumption and age factor. On the other hand, genes also play a role in developing type-2 diabetes. To prevent it, you will have to choose the right lifestyle choices.
Treatment for type-2 diabetes Mellitus
People who are dealing with diabetes mellitus type-2 don’t need any insulin as the body still produces a small amount of insulin. Some medications are also there, like Metformin which is present to assist in decreasing blood sugar. There are also some primary ways to treat this type1
A balanced diet is a must which should include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, and there should be less interest in occasional high-fat, high-sugar food to treat type-2 diabetes.
Staying active is very essential, so this exercise is a must. An individual should try various types of exercises and work on them weekly. By weight loss, it includes taking care of your body and reducing strain on the pancreas.
Monitoring blood glucose should be done regularly and daily. It tells you how your sugar level is throughout your days so that you can adjust your diet accordingly.
Symptoms of type-2 diabetes
The symptoms are as follows:
- Urination is frequent.
- A lot of thirsts.
- Numbness in feet or hands.
- Vision is a blur.
- Hunger is increasing.
- Itchy skin.
How to prevention?
As the cause of diabetes type-1 is also genetic, a blood test is essential to determine how many chances there are to develop type1. Still, usually, doctors don’t recommend it. When symptoms are taking their hype, the test is important for diagnosis. A1C screening helps determine blood sugar levels from the past 3 or 2 months.
There are also other ways to lower the risks of type-2 diabetes, as it is essential to manage it if someone has it. These ways include:
- Healthy Diet.
- Maintenance of average blood pressure.
- There should be weight management and exercise.
- Lower or nil consumption of alcohol.
- Quit Smoking.
- Fiber should be included in the diet.
There is also prediabetes Mellitus which means to have higher than normal sugar levels in the blood. Still, it is not high enough to be treated as type-2 diabetes mellitus yet. People who are under 45 have a significantly lower risk.
Diabetes mellitus type-1 is a genetic disorder, and it is indicated early in life. At the same time, type-2 is developed due to diet. In both of the cases, the body doesn’t produce insulin properly to regulate blood sugar, but the reasons are different. If someone is exhibiting symptoms of any diabetes mellitus type, a checkup is necessary.
You can visit Dr. Tetyana Metyk’s clinic for the necessary checkup. She can further assist you with controlling and managing Diabetes Mellitus disease. You can head over to our Website for more information about diabetes management and treatment. You can also book an appointment from our Contact Us page directly. We are always here to help you and your family get healthy.